How to Use ‘i.e.’

I.e. stands for the Latin id est, or ‘that is,’ and is used to introduce a word or phrase that restates what has been said previously. What follows the i.e. is meant to clarify the earlier statement:

for example :

Research at three British zoos suggests that meerkats “showed increased positive interactions” (i.e. they were happier) when human visitors returned than they were during the visitorless lockdown.
— Peter Rhodes, Shropshire Star (Telford, England), 5 Mar. 2021

I.e. is similarly useful for defining or explaining a term or concept whose meaning readers might not know:

Take butterflied — i.e. deboned — whole fish, sprinkle it with lime and orange juices, and sumac, and then bake for about 10 minutes.
— Emily Weinstein, The New York Times, 10 June 2022

If your home has “hard water” (i.e., a high mineral content), your sinks, showers, and tubs no doubt bear white or yellow buildup as a result. — Melissa Reddigari,, 22 Aug. 2019

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